:AUDREY CHEROTICH 9796.

               : Maureen  Mutonga    9428

               : Charity Wangechi       9684

               : Leon Onchong’a         9942

                :Bilal Lugwe             9762

UNIT: Online Journalism

Advantages and Disadvantages.
The Effect/Outcome on Both in Modern Society.

What is Media:-is the channel through which a message travels from the source to the receiver.
Traditional media is any form of mass communication available before the advert /arrival of digital TV, radio, newspapers, books, magazines, billboards. It includes mostly non-digital advertising and marketing methods.

Characteristics of Traditional Media.
It has multiple gatekeepers. (A person who has control over what material eventually reaches the public).

It needs a great deal of money to operate.

It exists to make profile.(summary /collection of information of someone or somebody)

They are highly competitive.

It is a one way affair/conversation.

Produced by complex and formal organization.

Advantages of traditional Media.
Have broad reach. Many people are able to be covered through the traditional media such as radio, Tv, and print media. People of all ages got their news from a small amount of publications that had extremely broad reach across the population.

Urgent information is broadly dispersed. This is for example on the time of emergencies. Even today many people turn to Tv/ radio to get important information from authorities. Through this they are able to take precaution measures.

Controlled information by experts and authority. Has important gatekeepers (carr J, 2012). The gatekeepers are responsible for filtering the kind of information disseminated to the public for consumption. This helps in avoiding misinformation.

Long shelf life with high pass-along readership.

Extreme views do not spread easily. The unlawful kind of content is filtered and bleeped out to protect the wrong content reaching the wrong audience. e.g pon videos to the children. The extreme and radical opinions are curtailed through the multiple gatekeepers.

Sense of community and social cohesion develops. Emergence of the printing press led to the concept of the “nation”(Benedict Anderson 1983). His theory explained that the information disseminated through the printing press is consumed by everyone therefore bringing in the sense of commonality.

Disadvantages of traditional media

It’s a one-way communication process. No chance for feedback as in new media.

Sometimes traditional media can prove to be forced on you. Many times, when you do not wish to see a promotion of any product, still you have that in front of your eyes and it makes you forcefully learn about it

. The word of mouth in traditional media does not scatter rapidly to a large number of people and they even do not get instant feed backs on them.

It also experiences lack of community as many times the audiences and viewers do not have something in common with a product or a brand.

Advertisers spend lot of money in a bid to reach out to the target audiences but many times the whole effort fails.

New Media:-It means any form of communication using digital technologies such as the internet. New media forms rely on computers for redistribution. Examples are Search engine optimization, Pay- per- click advertising, content marketing, social Media, Email marketing, Facebook and Instagram. YouTube Channels, Podcasts

Characteristics of New Media.

Digital:-where the information is converted, stored and transmitted as a binary code

. Interactivity:-it is a two way affair where it allows consumers and users to get more involved.

Hypertextual:-Gives the users more freedom of choice over how they navigate the different sources of information.

Global networks:-one is able to interact much more globally and through virtual networks of people.

Virtual Worlds:-it gives the users the opportunity to present themselves in any way they see fit.

Simulation:-it is a most obviously experienced computer game which provides an immersive experience for users.

Advantages of new media

 Information production is no longer just for elites:-anyone with an internet connection can have their beliefs and opinions broadcast to anyone around the world who wants to listen, therefore not only becoming informative consumers, but also information producers. People can find their tribe:-connections of peoples with common interaction through the internet leading to multitude of internet subcultures.

National borders are less of a barrier:-we are now able to link up with our dispersed sub-cultural groups around the world.

Minority views and opinions can gain traction:-people from minority groups that were traditionally excluded from old mass media platforms have found platforms to share their opinions online.

We can stay in touch:-we can watch from a distance and share our major achievements of life changes to stay in touch with distant peoples.

News produced gets instant feedback:-as soon as a piece of news is pumped out, tubets fling back and comments are provided to show feedback.

We can access anything almost anywhere– Smartphones, tablets, laptops are all ways you can access the Internet. It makes it easy for us to be advertised to at all times, which can sometimes be annoying for the consumer if not done in the right way. Yet for the advertiser, having unlimited access to put ads in front of their ideal target audience is great news.

The internet has changed everything– It connects us, and better yet, informs us most of the time. People spend a lot of time on the internet to get information, get entertainment

News is instantaneous– Thanks to news apps, Twitter, etc., news spreads faster than ever. We no longer need to wait until the 6pm news to access our news. As part of this instantaneous access to knowledge, we now have what’s known as the “24 hour news cycle”. Consumers have an insatiable appetite for news, so new media have to pump out an ongoing stream of ever more sensationalized news articles.

Disadvantages of New Media.

Misinformation spreads like wildfire– without traditional gatekeepers, there’s nobody controlling which information is disseminated.

We can live in an ideological bubble – News without the need to have widespread mass appeal, new media target dispersed niche and ideological markets. People begin to only reinforce their personal views, causing social polarization.

Fierce media competition: – small news websites with fresh takes for niche audiences have propped up, crowding the market with information accreditation comp.

There is a wider customer base for companies large and small. As much as there is competition in the market, the new media target for global audience. Therefore, new media can have a wider reach to the audience as compared to traditional media hence, a social media marketer can expand his/her business globally.

Differences between New and Traditional Media.

Traditional advert targets a broad audience through billboards, print advert, TV commercials while new media allows companies to target a narrow audience through social media, paid online ads and search results.

In Traditional media price-wise, concerns tend to cost more compared to new media

. New Media is immediate while traditional can be delayed due to press times.

Traditional media pieces are more final, where new media is dynamic.

New media offers more control over the message than traditional media.

Traditional media is a one way conversation while new media is a two way conversation.

Similarities between New and Traditional Media.

In both, one needs to plan before advertising.

They are both measurable:-In traditional you can use foot traffic, sales data and surveys in order to gather this data while new media can be gathered through online data per click, hashtag and shares.

Reference: Allcott,H. Gentzkow M.&Yu, C.(2019). Imagined communities.

Legan,R.K(2010) Extending Marshall Mcluhan.

Thompson,R.2011 Journal of strategic communication.

Postman,N,1985. Childhood Education.

Anderson B, (2006) Imagined communities

. Carr J 2012 International Journal of communication.

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